Things are busy around here - despite the PE Prep "offseason" beginning, I've been working on improvements and construction of a handful of promising tools.
One basic but very much needed update is an improvement to the Obstruction Calculator. Now, you can enter either the horizontal distance of a sprinkler or the vertical distance of the sprinkler, and get minimum and maximum feedback based on each.
During design, many of us know the depth of the sprinkler and depth of the obstruction prior to determining where (horizontally) the sprinkler is going to be located away from an obstruction. Now the tool helps support that effort.
If you're a Toolkit user, you have immediate access to these updates and can download the latest updates on the dashboard here.
As always, thank you to those who have sent ideas and feedback! Stay tuned for next week on a new database launch for Toolkit users.
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First, a big thank you to those who commented and emailed ideas and topics that contributed to the latest tool for this site - the Trapeze Calculator.
With only a few "knowns" (pipe diameter and schedule, and distances to nearest structure), you can now quickly calculate the section modulus that's required, visit options for the trapeze bar, and see these options schematically in a to-scale detail.
Have multiple pipes on a trapeze? Calculate the section modulus required for each, add the two moduli together, and simply override the Section Modulus Required value below to see your options.
Get CAD Details
Want a CAD version of the detail? Sure thing - the downloadable All-Access Toolkit allows you to save and print these calculations as PDFs, which can then be imported directly into AutoCAD and use the ALIGN function to scale it to your drawing.
Already a Toolkit user? Install the latest version from your dashboard to get the updates to this tool. No new activation code is necessary.
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Thanks for those who have provided feedback thus far - here's the progress on the Trapeze Sizing Tool.
Also, quick note: today is the last day to get the custom mousepad with the Toolkit. If you're an all-access subscriber of the Toolkit (new today or prior), be sure to fill out your information to get a free one on the dashboard. Those will be sent out starting next week.
The tool was not allowing any entry when it initially posted but that's cleaned up now.
I've updated some hanger detailing, labels, and Unistrut sizing.
What else would be helpful to incorporate here? I plan to add some flexibility on structure types, include a graphic scale, and offer options for which trapeze to show (the default is Schedule 10 pipe).
Also, for contractors - what is your preferred method of attachment and hanging for the trapeze? A washer and nut would typically be used for Unistrut and angle iron, but what about pipe as a trapeze? I'd like to detail what is realistic and preferred in the field.
As always, feel free topost comments here or shoot me an email with ideas. Thanks in advance!
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First, a huge thank you to everyone who's expressed interest and purchased the Toolkit - I very much appreciate the fantastic response to the launch over the last three weeks!
It's a short post this week - I've been developing a Trapeze Hanger tool that sizes and schematically details trapeze hangers. This will likely be the first of three posts while developing this tool.
Questions for you at this point in time:
(1) What other possible standard trapeze materials do you use that could be helpful as part of this tool?
(2) What would you like to see shown in the detail?
(3) If the detail could be easily translated to AutoCAD from this calculator, could it be something helpful for your projects? If so, what would you want shown and identified?
Click here to test and comment on the Trapeze Hanger tool, thanks in advance!
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The Toolkit package is here!
This week, as part of the big launch, you can get every tool we have available: Get access to the Sprinkler Database, downloaded tools, post-a-question and more today. The Toolkit is a downloadable package that allows you to PDF, print and save your calculations as well as get access to the Sprinkler Database and a host of other benefits.
Things are busy and trending up around here -
On Monday of next week the Toolkit officially launches. As a subscriber you'll now be able to use the Toolkit alongside the Sprinkler Database, get all flowcharts as PDFs, and be up to date on the latest tools we're creating and testing around here.
Stay tuned for emails next week with the big launch and special offer details.
Based on some feedback and good ideas I've been experimenting with graphing fire pump & flow test curves with usable data outputs. Below is the first iteration for drawing a fire pump curve alongside a water supply curve.
Determining ideal fire pump configurations for sprinkler and standpipe systems can be
an important part of optimizing fire suppression design
Here's the help I could really use from you - what else would be included in your ideal pump curve?
Would you prefer this be on a logarithmic x-axis?
Want 175 & 300 psi limit lines shown?
Would you want to see at what height in a building the 175 psi threshold would occur - on this graph?
System demand and hose?
I'm open to any and all ideas - in the end I think it'd be great if this tool was the quickest & best method for summarizing and analyzing fire pump output. Share your ideas in the comments here, thanks in advance!
New Backflow Preventer Database
I've started a new database for backflow preventers in a similar way to the popular fire sprinkler database.
Backflow preventers are and have been a mainstay on fire sprinkler systems to protect the public water supply from backsiphonage. They're required by both the International Plumbing Code (608.16.4) and the Uniform Plumbing Code, two popular enforced codes in the US and elsewhere.
The new Backflow Preventer Database is in beta and available to current Sprinkler Database subscribers.
Backflow preventers have a number of different parameters. There's differences in types (double check, double check detector, reduced pressure zone, and reduced pressure detector), materials, listed rating, sizes, connections (flanged, grooved), valve types (outside screw and yolk or OS&Y, non-rising stem or NRS, butterfly valves, or ball valves), orientations (horizontal, vertical, n-pattern, y-pattern, z-pattern), and various certifying agencies (UL, FM, ASSE, CSA, NSF, USC).
Most of my curiosity and the reason for building to the tool was (1) to determine what is actually available on the market today, (2) what are the differences between types and models, and (3) how can I easily access manufacturer websites, product data, CAD details, and Revit families with one-click. That curiosity led to the new Backflow Database.
While it's still in an early beta-testing mode users who are already subscribed to the Sprinkler Database can now access the Backflow Database by logging in.
If you're a Sprinkler Database user, give it a try and let me know what improvements I can make. Right now the database includes Wilkins, Ames, and Febco models. Have a manufacturer you'd like to see? Have ideas for updates? Email me at firstname.lastname@example.org or comment here. Thanks in advance!
Vote on New Tools & See What Else is Coming Soon
Around here we're always in development on new and improved tools to help designers, reviewers, inspectors, installers, and engineers in the fire protection industry.
You can now see, and vote, on upcoming tools that are in development for MeyerFire.com. The "Coming Soon" page is now live under "Tools" on the website header.
Take a look at upcoming tools, rate each, and share ideas that we can work towards on this new area of the website.
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When conducting or reviewing hydraulic calculations, I very often face scenarios where the initial (very first) hydraulic demand exceeds the potential for the water supply.
At that point I lose all hope and add a fire pump to the job.
Just kidding, of course - there's at least a half dozen hydraulic elements I analyze and refine to better match the capabilities of the water supply to the design of the sprinkler system.
Refining Hydraulic Calculations with K-Factors
One of the more fine-tooth aspects I look at is the k-factor used on the sprinklers.
The k-factor for a fire sprinkler is the discharge coefficient, or in normal human terms just relates to the amount of water that is permitted through the sprinkler.
The k-factor is dependent upon the orifice diameter of the sprinkler - a low k-factor (such as K2.8) restricts the flow of water, while a larger k-factor (such as K22.4, K25.2, or K28.0) permit much more water to flow through. K-factors were originally created to be multiples of the discharge of a K5.6 sprinkler. A K2.8 sprinkler, for example, is 50% discharge of a K5.6 sprinkler, while a K11.2 sprinkler is 200% of the discharge of a K5.6. NFPA 13-2016 Table 126.96.36.199 shows this well.
Use In Design
We find K5.6 sprinklers in light hazard all the time. Residential sprinklers often have k-factors less than 5.6. ESFR and CMSA require minimum K11.2 (NFPA 13-2016 188.8.131.52). ESFR are tied directly to the hazard it protects.
Back to refining the hydraulics in a system - increasing the k-factor of a sprinkler allows more water to flow through a sprinkler with less pressure loss. This becomes very important when trying to reduce pressure loss in a system.
Light Hazard Example
A light hazard system (0.10 gpm/sqft) with widely spaced sprinklers (at 225 sqft each) would require a minimum flow through each sprinkler of 22.5 gpm (0.10 gpm/sqft x 225 sqft = 22.5 gpm).
In order to flow 22.5 gpm, a sprinkler with a k-factor of 5.6 now requires 16.1 psi to do so (Q=k√p, or rearranged, p=(Q/k)^2). This is 9.1 psi higher than 7 psi, or the minimum that NFPA 13 requires.
In order to flow 22.5 gpm, a sprinkler with k-factor of 8.0 only requires 7.9 psi to do so, or less than 1 psi more than the minimum NFPA 13 requires.
In this scenario, flowing the same amount of water (22.5 gpm) results in a 8.2 psi difference in the pressure required at the most remote sprinkler. Can 8.2 psi be important? Absolutely!
Similarly, consider Ordinary Hazard Group 1 (0.15 gpm/sqft) and Ordinary Hazard Group 2 (0.20 gpm/sqft) systems.
For Ordinary Hazard Group 1 and sprinklers spaced at 130 sqft, a K8.0 sprinkler requires 5.1 psi less than a K5.6 sprinkler (7.0 psi vs 12.1 psi).
This same methodology applies to extended coverage sprinkler requirements, specific densities for traditional storage design, and more.
The K-Factor Selector
Want to quickly compare fire sprinkler k-factors across different design densities and sprinkler spacing? Easy. Here's the calculator I've created that quickly compares pressure requirements and flow rates across different sprinkler k-factors.
Want all these tools in a downloadable, printable & PDF-saving capability? Great! The MeyerFire Toolkit will include this tool as well. You can download and try it out now through September for free.
Other than the Toolkit, users of the comprehensive Fire Sprinkler Database can sort & search among k-factors as one of the parameters when comparing sprinklers.
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Quick updates for this week - thanks to helpful recent suggestions I've updated the Friction Loss Calculator to include several NFPA 13-provided fittings as well as fluid velocity among various sizes.
With a flow rate and length of pipe, you'll see fluid velocity as it's own column in feet/second. While both NFPA 13 and FM Global do not have any limitations on fluid velocity, it's a good point of reference to reference how quickly a fluid is moving through the pipe.
The brief list of fittings at the bottom allow you to compare friction loss across a number of different assembly sizes, so you can compare runs of pipe or assemblies at various sizes all at the same time.
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Joseph Meyer, PE, is a Fire Protection Engineer in St. Louis, Missouri. See bio on About page.