I had several long standing global concerns when I was in grade school.
It wasn't general anxiety or depression-related, but I certainly felt as though the weight of worldwide issues hung squarely on my small shoulders.
At the time in school there was a major focus on the environment (I would imagine there likely still is now). It wasn't just a hard-sell on earth day, it was the disappearance of rain forests, erosion due to overbuilding, overpopulation, oil spills, our reluctance to recycle, and the overzealous use of oil that would undoubtedly cause our planet irrevocable damage. It was our generation's tasks to make right what generations before had begun.
The gravity of the concern didn't feel just environmental either.
New media opened the front door to war, disease, and a myriad of reasons to be pessimistic about the future and the world our kids will someday inherit.
Now years later, as a father, I've heard similar sentiments prevail; "how could someone bring a child into the world today?" "I can't imagine how to parent with all the (fill in the blank) going on today." "Will there even be X around when our kids are old?"
I'm not going to pretend that everything is sunshine and roses for everyone. There are major geopolitical issues and wars and famine and poverty and disease. A great day for me could also be the worst day for someone else.
What I am hear to say is that when you adjust your focus from the immediate present and look out a just little more distant - there is so much promise in the world. And by so much promise I mean that the planet is getting healthier, cleaner, and the quality of human life is improving in ways that we've never seen before in human history.
There has actually never been a better time to bring a child into the world.
In Peter Diamandis and Steven Kotler's 2012 bestseller "Abundance: The Future is Better Than You Think", an author and engineer review historical data and trends that show how technology is achieving exponential improvements in computing, energy, and medicine.
This bestselling book details many eye-opening reasons for optimism with the trends our societies are experiencing.
These independent technology-based innovations have and will continue to drive major improvements to clean water access, food, energy, health care, education, and other facets of a first world standard of living for the planet's future nine billion people.
Not only does mainstream media not cover the positive trends in the world today, but the future of our planet is looking more urbanized, education, cleaner, and healthier.
Speaking of population, the United Nations recently released a DESA report projecting nearly 10 billion people in 2050 and over 11.2 billion people in 2100. Since this latest update there's been fairly widespread disagreement about these figures, with many researchers speaking out out about the projections that hinge on one major flaw: population growth rates are declining. Some countries have already peaked in population and are now in decline without immigration. Many expect that we, as a planet, will never reach more than 10 billion people.
This isn't news to you if you live in Europe or Japan, of course, but in the U.S. many of us seem unaware of this major global trend. Research shows that with urbanization and better education, couples have less children. This speaks to major positive impacts in using less resources and shaping a cleaner planet in the future.
Trends in Fire Protection
That's great Joe, but what does this have to do with fire protection?
First, as is my underlying theme in the whole website - engineering is going to save the world. I'm sure my wife would also suggest that scientists deserve some credit too, but this isn't her blog.
Second, don't be discouraged if you feel that the quality of our line of work is in freefall, that no one is entering the industry, or that we've lost all sense of pride in what we do. Big-picture trends in fire protection are very positive, with death rates due to fire steadily decreasing per capita over the last century. The unrelenting overall trend is that we are doing something right as fewer people per capita are dying now from building fires.
Fire fatalities have been and continue to decrease with advancements in code adherence, our knowledge of fire protection, and shared education of the subject. Just the last 30 years across Europe and the US there's been major improvements in fire safety:
Global trends in fire deaths have decreased over the last quarter-century as shown in this US FEMA study.
Third, if you've ever felt similarly barraged by the negativity in the media or fears that we're only one step away from global catastrophe, I would wholeheartedly encourage you to read or listen to the book Abundance: The Future is Better Than You Think.
There's no summary that I could put together that I feel would do the book justice.
Of the fifty-plus books I read last year this was without-a-doubt the most impactful. [On a side note, if you're wondering how I average 50 books a year - I cheat and listen on audible.com. You can actually get the book Abundance and another book, for free, with a free trial here]
If you've read Abundance, comment below on your impression. If not, I'd highly encourage you to read it and let me know what you think (shoot me an email at firstname.lastname@example.org). I promise the read will be worth your time.
If you've enjoyed this article, consider subscribing to these free weekly posts here.
Here's a few other book reviews:
Chicago Death Trap: The Iroquois Theatre Fire of 1903
Fahrenheit 451 & The Thirst For Knowledge
Triangle: The FIre That Changed America
Diamandis, Peter H. Abundance: the Future Is Better than You Think. Simon & Schuster, 2015.
Fire Death Rate Trends: An International Perspective. FEMA, July 2011, www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/statistics/v12i8.pdf.
United Nations Population Division | Department of Economic and Social Affairs. United Nations, www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/trends/population-prospects.asp.
Determining fire flow can be a tricky subject. This week I'm breaking down one common method of determining fire flow requirements and hopefully exposing some myths about the process.
Not an Exact Science
First, determining the exact amount of water required to manually suppress a fire is dependent upon so many variables. The amount of water used could depend on the building size, hazard, outdoor conditions, speed of fire growth, fire department response time, whether the building is protected by sprinklers, and on and on.
The methods used to calculate fire flow are different methods at estimating the amount of water required to manually suppress a fire. It is not an exact science.
What is Fire Flow?
I'll start by what fire flow is not. Fire Flow is not the volume of water required for the fire sprinkler system. I couldn't count the number of projects where Fire Flow has been assumed to be sprinkler-related.
Fire Flow is formally defined as the "flow rate of a water supply, measured at 20 psi (138 kPa), that is available for fire fighting." (IFC 200-2018 Appendix B Section B102)
Fire flow is used to determine the quality of a water supply to an area. It's used as an aid to determine pipe size and arrangements to delivery water to a specific area.
Fire Flow is important for emergency response at it is the total capacity of the system that the fire department has available for use in response to a fire.
How Is Required Fire Flow Determined?
In short - it depends.
There are many methods for determining fire flow. The most common cited in US circles include the Insurance Services Office (ISO) Method, Iowa State Method, and the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Method. At least a dozen other methods exist (for more on these, the Fire Protection Research Foundation provides great analysis in Evaluation of Fire Flow Methodologies research paper).
The International Fire Code (IFC) offers Appendix material that provides guidance for determining the required fire flow, which is based on the ISO Method. It is not a mandated code requirement unless a jurisdiction adopts the Appendix.
Many jurisdictions I've worked with do not have an ordinance that adopts the appendix, but when asked they are typically open to using the IFC Appendix B method of determining fire flow. The International Fire Code, which is widely adopted in the US, only requires that an approved water supply "capable of supplying the required fire flow" be provided to buildings.
This process will be explored in more detail here.
1. Determine Baseline Fire Flow
The first step in this overall determination of water supply to a site is to determine the required fire flow.
Using the IFC Method, Appendix B has a reference table that stipulates a minimum fire flow and flow duration based upon building size and construction type (2000-2012 Table B105.1, 2015-2018 Table B105.1(2)).
2. Reductions & Increases
Once a baseline value for flow and duration is taken from the table, it can be reduced based on the presence of sprinkler system.
Section B105 details the adjustments that are available for buildings with a sprinkler system. A reduction of up to 75% can be permitted for buildings with a fire sprinkler system.
It's important to note that up through the 2012 edition of the International Fire Code, a reduction of fire flow had to be approved, meaning the AHJ must agree on the reduction. This may not make a difference if a jurisdiction hasn't adopted the appendix and the entire calculation has to be approved anyways, but in the case where Appendix B is adopted and you're under IFC 2000 through 2012, you'll need AHJ buy-in to use the reduction.
The 2015 and 2018 edition of IFC removed the approval necessity for sprinkler flow reductions.
As part of this process the Fire Chief is also authorized to decrease the required fire flow, based on building isolation or impracticality. Alternatively, the Fire Chief is also authorized to increase based on unusual susceptibility for the facility. These stipulations come with Section B103 of Appendix B (all editions).
Fire Flow is used to quantify the available water supply for manual firefighting operation.
3. Verify Provided Fire Flow
The best way to verify fire flow for a location is to conduct a flow test at the site itself. This of course can be difficult to impossible for new-construction projects on virgin sites.
For developed areas or building expansions, this may not be difficult to accomplish.
I have a current project we're working on that is a major building expansion. Fire flow needed to be assessed based on the new expanded building and whether a single 8-inch feed would still meet the minimum requirements. A flow test on the site itself confirmed that we are just short of required fire flow which prompted a healthy discussion with the AHJ.
4. Calculate from Flow Test to Site (if necessary)
Sometimes a flow test can't be conducted on the site itself.
When this is the case, a hydraulic calculation can be run between the water supply source (nearby flow test, a water tower, reservoir, or pump) and the project site to estimate what the available fire flow will be. This calculation incorporates the pressure loss of the pipe network as water is constricted between a source and a project site. The best way to confirm actual fire flow (in my opinion) is to verify with a flow test once any extension is installed.
Easy Tools for Fire Flow & Water Supply Analysis
There's a new tool in the arsenal around here that directly addresses fire flow requirements.
It's the Fire Flow Calculator that's now a part of the Toolkit. If you're already a Toolkit subscriber, download it today.
The Fire Flow Calculator uses the IFC method based on your project parameters to quickly grab the baseline fire flow and duration, and make adjustments for sprinkler protection. Now you have extremely quick access to determine required fire flow, and the documentation to support your process.
This is a tool I'm happy to debut and have used with great client feedback.
On a side note, Toolkit subscribers also now have access to last week's Design Checklist with user-provided feedback. The download update includes both tools. Give them a download and let me know what you think!
Don't get these weekly articles? Subscribe here and get a free guide for canopies & overhangs.
When I first started in the industry I worked on a long line of high-end retail projects scattered across the United States. Six months after starting I got a question from a project manager about concealed space wood-structure sprinkler protection on a particular store in San Jose.
San Jose? I was positive I never worked on a project in San Jose.
A little digging later revealed I did in fact work on a small retail shop in San Jose. The only problem was that it looked just like the other 30 stores I had worked on in-between. Did I evaluate protection or even consider the combustible above-ceiling space? Did I discuss anything with the AHJ?
I quickly realized that if I didn't take project-specific design notes I'd have no way of revisiting my thought process when a question inevitably arose later in the project.
The Mad Man
Ever since then, and not entirely due to my undiagnosed organization issues, I've been on a mad hunt to find the best way to record project notes in the cleanest and most insanely-quick process possible.
For me it's partially about recording the design thought process, and partially about reminding myself about all the considerations that need to occur for a project.
I can't say I've tried every method for project note taking, but I have used word templates, checklists, spreadsheets, OneNote files, linked databases, access databases, and the good old pen and paper.
I have several goals when devising project notes for me and the staff I work with:
An example project design sheet (click to see full PDF)
Here's where I am now - an excel-based, single page note page where a quick "X" above a cell highlights the one below. If I know all of the information in a project, it can be filled out completely in less than 3 minutes.
It can be a helpful accompaniment for sprinkler contractor clients when we're submitting a bid, or helpful notes to accompany a QC set of drawings.
What Am I Missing?
I'm sure your checklists and cheatsheets include a wide variety of considerations. In my attempt to better this one and incorporate the whole spreadsheet, what important elements am I missing? View PDFs below, and post your comments & feedback about important things to add here.
Find these conversations interesting? Forward to a friend or subscribe to these weekly posts here.
If you've been following the blog for awhile, you might already know about the Toolkit that has really taken off lately. This past week I've incorporated some (great) user feedback and now have a new version to present:
I've revamped the organization and it's FAR easier to navigate and use now.
With a new main menu and crisp pages the Toolkit is FAR easier to navigate. Now you can get what you need, quickly.
If you're already a subscriber to the Toolkit, use the download link below to get the latest version right now. No need for any new access codes - it just updates the Toolkit right over your current version.
A clip of the latest version of the Sprinkler Obstruction Calculator on the MeyerFire Toolkit.
What is the Toolkit, and what does it include?
The MeyerFire Toolkit is a downloadable series of excel-based tools that allow fire protection designers, engineers and code authorities to quickly calculate a myriad of regular applications. With this tool you can save time with quick but powerful tools that you can save, PDF, or print.
The Toolkit contains all of the tools you see on this website - plus the popular Fire Sprinkler Database - which is a live collection of all fire sprinklers on the market where you can sort and filter to see what products exist for your application, and then specify or design the ones that best match your design goals.
A Free 30-Day Trial, Starting Today
If you've never seen the Toolkit, or have used a trial version before and are interested in testing the new look, download the toolkit with a trial code (good through late March) here:
There's a few new additions to the Toolkit I hope to debut in the next couple weeks based on suggestions from users just like you. If you're an expert in fire flow calculations or water storage tank design and are interested in early testing, email me at email@example.com.
If you know someone who might be interested in giving the Toolkit a try, email them about downloading it today. This free trial only lasts through late March 2019. As always, you can subscribe to these weekly articles & resources here.
First - thank you for such a warm response to last week's article on a major and thorny topic of using sprinklers alongside glazing in rated assemblies. I genuinely appreciate and am motivated by so many thoughtful people in our industry.
As I mentioned last week, below is a link to the original article with the new PDF summary. It compares rated window assemblies, use of closely-spaced sprinklers for atrium enclosures, and the use of window sprinklers across many important categories.
If you find this useful, please consider sharing with others who also may be interested in the content. If you're not already subscribed, you can get this and many other similar resources for fire protection design, inspection, review, & engineering by subscribing, for free, here.
Thanks & have a great weekend!
Perhaps one of the most seemingly straightforward but actually complex topics of fire protection is the use of fire sprinklers to achieve passive fire resistance requirements. This week I'm diving into an introduction of different methods of using sprinklers for passive fire protection and discussing some of the design abuse therein.
If you've encountered it, you're surely already familiar with how big of a topic it is.
Three Methods for Protection of Windows
Where windows are provided in fire-resistance rated components (a fire partition or barrier, as sprinklers are not permitted to be used for fire walls), the opening must be addressed in a manner that maintains the fire-resistance of the rated enclosure. The driver for these requirements is the building code.
Option 1: Rated Glazing
The first method to address openings in rated walls is provide a glazing assembly that is rated.
The International Building Code qualifies two types or ratings- fire-resistance-rated or fire protection rating. The former is tested to ASTM E119 or UL 263 and is not considered an opening. The later (fire protection rating) is tested to NFPA 257 or UL 9 and has limitations on overall size. (IBC 2018 Fire-Rated Glazing Definition)
Of the three options, this one is the most costly. Cited costs of fire rated glazing alone can be nearly $100 per square foot. For a large 10 foot x 6 foot window, for instance, that's over $6,000 for each panel.
Option 2: Closely-Spaced Sprinklers (for Atrium Enclosures)
Closely-spaced, standard sprinklers are used in glazing applications specifically for the protection of an atrium enclosure which contains glass.
The closely-spaced sprinklers, used in conjunction with specific requirements for glass and frame, are only permitted in the International Building Code as an alternative to a 1-hour enclosure for atrium spaces. (IBC 2018 404.6)
I'll discuss this in more detail, but the big takeaway here is that the building code only permits the use of closely spaced sprinklers as an alternative to a 1-hour enclosure for atrium enclosures.
Closely Spaced Sprinklers used in lieu of a 1-hour wall for atrium enclosures are the least-restrictive setup for sprinklers and glazing, with limited dimensional requirements and allowed use of multiple standard sprinkler types.
Option 3: Window-Style Sprinklers
The last method for treatment of windows in fire rated assemblies is to provide Tyco Window-Style sprinklers installed in accordance with their listing.
The proper use of these sprinklers can achieve up to a 2-hour fire resistance rating with the use of glass. This method is not a prescribed code application but rather an “alternative method of construction” which requires documentation & support as an alternative, and must be approved by the AHJ. (IBC 2018 104.11)
Fair warning - these sprinklers are roughly $400 each, and have major restrictions for their use (including specific sprinkler placement dimensions and glass requirements).
Window-Style Sprinklers (by Tyco) can provide up to a 2-hour rating for a fire barrier. With wider application, these sprinklers also come with a significant list of limitations outlined in the product listing.
Passive vs. Active Systems
Passive fire protection requirements, such as the fire-resistance ratings of fire partitions, fire barriers, and fire walls, are required by code to limit the spread of fire.
The term 'passive' is given as no intervention or dynamic activity is required in order for the system to function. Fire partitions, barriers and walls have a long history of successfully extending longevity of buildings in a fire, limiting spread, and increasing the ability of people to defend in place or escape a fire.
Active systems are identified by a dynamic "action" that is required in order to function effectively. Automatic fire sprinkler systems are one type of active fire protection system, which require open valves, clear pathways, and in some cases the electrical and mechanical operation of fire pumps.
Point-Counterpoint For & Against Fire Sprinklers for Passive Requirements
This area of application isn't without controversy. There's opposite viewpoints on whether sprinklers should even be used as an alternative to passive fire protection. Here's a summary of the pros and cons:
Use of sprinklers in conjunction with glass can afford many architectural opportunities without the expense of rated glazing, but restrictions are extensive, such as ensuring no combustibles are adjacent to the glass
The Common Misapplication
I’ve often heard architects ask about using “water curtains” or “deluge sprinklers” when they have a rated fire barrier and are looking to incorporate a window.
The request is commonly for "closely spaced" standard sprinklers to comprise a 1-hour or 2-hour fire barrier.
I’m fairly confident that some part of me dies inside each time I hear either term - mostly because I know the education effort that always has to follow.
The Basis for Closely Spaced Sprinklers
The basis for standard, closely-spaced and located near glass, is provided in the International Building Code specifically for the enclosure of atria.
An atrium is specifically an opening that connects two or more stories and is one method of interconnecting multi-level spaces and acknowledging vertical openings with fire safe goals in mind.
Atrium spaces are unique in that they require fire sprinkler protection, a fire alarm system, and a smoke control system. All three of these components work in conjunction with each other to detect fire early in the process, notify occupants, and keep smoke to a manageable level while occupants escape.
The International Building Code allows “closely spaced” sprinklers to be used with glass (with limitations) in lieu of a 1-hour enclosure specifically because of the other systems already provided for life safety. (IBC 2018 404.6)
Misapplication for Non-Atrium Spaces
While this section for atrium spaces has existing for some time, what has not existed in the building code has been the provision for closely spaced sprinklers to equate to 1-hour fire resistance rating. To put it simply, a documented basis for such an arrangement doesn’t currently exist.
Could it be proposed as a code alternative to a 1-hour fire barrier? Perhaps. But even without being an AHJ, I would question what technical evidence would support the use of closely-spaced sprinklers to be used in lieu of a 1-hour fire barrier.
If I were an AHJ and closely-spaced sprinklers were proposed as a code alternative, I’d require a fire alarm system and a smoke control system for the space – just as is required for the atrium arrangement.
Casual (Sloppy) Design
Unfortunately, in some jurisdictions there’s not enough resources and/or education for code officials and plan reviewers to monitor and police applications like this.
Locally, I know of several jurisdictions who would immediately (and correctly) pounce on issues like this. I also know others where there is total reliance on the engineer for code compliance and proper design as there hardly is a plan review process.
This sloppy design causes issues for everyone, especially for me when I have to be the bad guy and educate an architect or general contractor on future jobs. It's the common excuse of "that's what we did on the last job" that of course justifies continuing down the wrong design path. This is one reason I really enjoy working with knowledgeable and thorough AHJs as opposed to more "hands-off" jurisdictions.
Free PDF Companion
Download our free PDF comparison between these three applications, with major design implications outlined.
I'm very interested in what your experience has been with the use of sprinklers to meet passive window fire protection requirements.
Help us by sharing your experiences on the topic in the comments section below. I look forward to the discussion.
References & More Reading
Arsenault, Peter. “Window Sprinklers as an Alternative to Fire-Rated Glass.” Continuing Education Center, Tyco, continuingeducation.bnpmedia.com/courses/tyco/window-sprinklers-as-an-alternative-to-fire-rated-glass/3/.
Kim, A.K., and G.D. Lougheed. “Fire Protection of Windows Using Sprinklers.” Construction Technology Updates, 15 Mar. 2018, www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/ctu-sc/en/ctu_sc_n12/.
Model WS-5.6 K-Factor Specific Application Window Sprinklers, Horizontal Sidewall and Pendant Vertical Sidewall. Tyco Fire Products Research & Development, 2016, Model WS-5.6 K-Factor Specific Application Window Sprinklers, Horizontal Sidewall and Pendant Vertical Sidewall, www.icc-es.org.
Tyco Window Sprinkler, tyco-fire.com/index.php?P=detailprod&S=6200.
I've heard that in order to publish on the internet all blog post titles must have a gripping click-bait title. This was my best attempt. Sorry to disappoint, but there is no love story here.
Things are back on track this week - the last got a little busy at home last week when my wife and I welcomed our third child to the family. Even with the third, it's amazing how much joy and motivation kids can bring with their arrival.
Needless to say I didn't have a whole lot of productivity last week, but I'm very glad you've tuned in. This week we're exploring requirements and challenges of sprinkler protection near overhead doors.
Sprinklers are required under "fixed obstructions over 4 ft (1.2 m) in width." (NFPA 13 - 2002-16 184.108.40.206.1, 2019 220.127.116.11.1)
One common application for this code section is overhead doors in the "open" position. Annex material even specifically references overhead doors as an applied example of this requirement.
Sprinklers are required where the horizontal projection of an overhead door exceeds 4-feet.
Application of the 4-ft Obstruction Rule
If the overhead door doesn't create an obstruction over 4 feet (1.2 m) in width, then a sprinkler is not required to be provided beneath the door. This dimension is typically applied in the horizontal dimension only, and is measured as the horizontal projection of the edge of the door away from the wall.
Depending on how creative things want to be architecturally, sprinklers can be avoided beneath overhead doors when the door assembly doesn't create a 4-foot horizontal obstruction. This can be the case with small coiling doors, door tracks that only run vertically up a wall, or a combination of vertical and horizontal tracks that don't project more than 4 feet out away from the wall.
Hanger & Supporting Challenges
NFPA 13 does not specifically address support for sidewall or upright sprinklers below an obstruction, but similar requirements can be extracted from criteria on pendent sprinklers served by branch pipe above a ceiling.
If a sprinkler's horizontal steel branch pipe feed is greater than 1'-0" for systems with 100 psi or more, or greater than 2'-0" for any steel system, then a hanger is required to support the armover (NFPA 13 2002-16 18.104.22.168, 2019 22.214.171.124).
This presents a natural challenge as the door track is typically only designed to support the forces of the door and is not considered to be building structure capable of supporting the sprinklers, pipe and fittings. While it's very common for installers to attach the hanger to the door track, many see this as a violation of the hanging rules of NFPA 13.
Supporting sprinklers beneath the overhead door can be a challenge due to the height differences between the door and the ceiling/roof structure above.
Drainage & Dry Systems
Protection beneath overhead doors ramps up to another level of difficulty when used in dry systems. If a sprinkler beneath an overhead door on a dry system traps water, there needs to be a means to drain the trapped water and for dry systems in an unheated area, would require an auxiliary drain and drum drip.
While this might not present a challenge with a single overhead door, multi-bay vehicle buildings could wind up having a low-point drum-drip for every or nearly every other overhead door.
Aside from the cost, these drum drips are a maintenance nuisance as failure to drain these on a regular basis could result in a freeze and rupture of the drain assembly.
New Guidance on Sprinkler Position & Types Below Obstructions
Fortunately - in an update that I find very helpful - the latest edition of NFPA 13 now addresses where sprinklers can be located beneath obstructions.
Sprinklers are required to be either located beneath the obstruction, or with their deflector no more than 3 inches off the side of the obstruction (see below). This was clarified in 2019 based on fire testing & research.
New guidance for sprinkler protection beneath obstructions - new to the 2019 edition of NFPA 13.
Where a sprinkler is adjacent to the obstruction and not directly beneath, it must be an "intermediate-level rack type" (NFPA 13 2019 126.96.36.199.1.3). These sprinklers are provided with a shield that prevents inadvertent cooling from sprinkler discharge above (the shield is ineffective and not intended to help "collect" heat).
What tips & tricks have you come across when dealing with sprinkler design around overhead doors? This site is created to start the discussion. Add your questions, tips & tricks in the section for your comments here.
Find this article interesting? Get more of my weekly articles & resources, for free, by subscribing here.
I've been told that memorizing the ANSI and ARCH drawing sizes along with architectural scales & their scale factors is a part of the first day of any drafting program. I've also been told that anyone who drafts regularly should undoubtedly have the standard sheet sizes and scale factors for different architectural scales memorized.
Consider me the dumb exception who never learned how to draft.
Despite being told I have a large head (I think they're talking about my physically awkward-sized head and not my bloated ego), I can't seem to allocate much space in there to remember the essentials of life like knowing that ANSI D translates to a 22 x 34 sheet size.
And for that, I've created a drafting cheatsheet -
Normally only important images get a caption below it, but in this case even a very basic table that just shows architectural scales and names for drawing sheet sizes gets a caption too. What a day.
Now, if you're from a part of the planet that uses an intuitive, logical, consensus-driven, and straightforward method of measuring using the SI system, then you can largely ignore the above tool and write us English-traditionalists off as keeping our head buried in the sand.
Despite even the original developers of the English system of measurement overhauling their system twice (the British adapted to the imperial system in 1824 and the metric system in the 1960s) and ditching the foot-pound world, us westerners just can't seem to let some things go.
This shouldn't be the sword I choose to fall on, so I'll leave the dead horse for someone else to beat. For those who use the "US Customary Units of Measure" and also can't seem to recall how to scale a 3/32" = 1'-0" background properly (it's a scale factor of 128), this cheatsheet is for you too.
Interested in getting more weekly tools & articles like this? Subscribe, for free, here.
This week we're covering a basic riser manifold configuration for wet-pipe fire sprinkler systems. This is not for a shotgun-style single riser, nor for a wet riser using an alarm check valve (we'll explore both of those later).
If you haven't checked it out, there are great ongoing discussions (some of which covered these topics) on the MeyerFire Daily page here.
Wet-pipe systems form the backbone of traditional fire sprinkler system design, comprising the most popular and most economical system type available. Here's the major components that go into a wet-pipe fire sprinkler assembly:
Hope your 2019 is off to a great start! Here's the big industry impacts I'm excited to be following in the upcoming year.
Tyco's UL Certified Antifreeze Solution
Tyco (Johnson Controls) debuted a big industry shakeup over the end of 2018 with their new UL Certified pre-mixed antifreeze solution.
A tragic apartment kitchen fire in 2010 activated a nearby sprinkler as part of an antifreeze solution with too high of a glycerin concentration, resulting in an "explosion" when contacting the flame. This and two other incidents quickly prompted an investigation by NFPA and its Fire Protection Research Foundation, which resulted in TIAs (Tenative Interim Amendments) to limit the use of antifreeze in new sprinkler systems. These TIAs required that antifreeze solutions must be listed for use in sprinkler systems.
Until now (eight years later), no such listed solution was available on the market.
This new antifreeze solution offers an alternative to dry systems for temperatures as low as -10 deg F (-23.3 deg C), and are listed for use with CPVC.
Upcoming PE Exam Changes
While the 2019 Fire Protection PE Exam doesn't appear to hold any major changes from the 2018 version, this is the last year that is planned to be a pencil and paper, all-resources-allowed version of the PE Exam. In 2020, NCEES (with SFPE's support) is planning to move the exam to be computer-based and potentially only permit portions of reference material to be available via PDFs.
These changes might not seem big on the surface, but with them the exam experience will change fairly dramatically - going from a personalized collection of customized notes, examples and self-made binders to more of a standardized approach similar to NICET exams.
Because of the uncertainty around the 2020 exam, I suspect there will be a good handful of PE candidates that if eligibile would opt to take the 2019 exam over being the "guinea-pig" on the new 2020 exam format. There's plenty more to be discussed and released by both NCEES and SFPE concerning the new computerized exam format, but it'll certainly be something I'll be tracking around here in the coming year.
MeyerFire in 2019
Thanks to the high level of interest and feedback for this site, everything is full-steam around here. The past year was phenomenal around here and I saw a major uptick in interest for the 2018 PE Prep Guide (two-thirds of examinees had it when they took the exam), the Weekly Exam Series, and the launch of the Toolkit.
In 2019 I hope to continue to improve upon the weekly blog series with highly-visual and hopefully helpful content, release a 2019 edition of the PE Prep Guide, and work towards a long-awaited fire protection reference guide - basically a book of helpful charts, graphs, and visuals for inspectors, designers, and engineers.
Why This Site Exists
This site was built to start the conversation.
I really would like to emphasize that I am not an end-all expert in the field. Much of what I've posted here as it relates to my own experience or industry guidance is already available.
What makes the emphasis of this site different is that it's all about bringing together experts in different fire protection factions to discuss and share best practices. It's about improving your workflow and your knowledge with resources and ideas, and giving a medium for you to share your expertise for other's gain as well.
If you're new to the blog or the website - welcome! We're well suited for a great year.
Get Free Articles via Email:
+ Get calculators, tools, resources and articles
+ Get our PDF Flowchart for Canopy & Overhang Requirements instantly
+ No spam
+ Unsubscribe anytime
Get access to every tool, the downloadable Toolkit, Sprinkler Database, Daily Post-a-Question and more:
Joseph Meyer, PE, is a Fire Protection Engineer in St. Louis, Missouri. See bio on About page.